High-resolution mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in modern characterization of synthetic polymers. The exact mapping of product distributions allows for facile identification of polymerization mechanisms, since side products can be traced with unmatched accuracy. Additionally, it also allows for testing of ligation efficiencies and has thus become a standard technique in click chemistry.Coupling of ESI-MS with size-exclusion chromatography allows to extend the accessible mass range and thus elucidation of polymer chains of up to 20 000 Da by observation of multiple charge states, giving access to product distributions as a function of chain length. Also in life science research high-resolution mass spectrometry is an increasingly solicited expertise bringing a plethora of applications into reach and facilitating the characterization and quantification of natural polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids as well as of `smaller' biochemicals. In biomedicine, envisaged analytical platform will drastically improve the detection of disease-related molecules (biomarkers) as well as the understanding of underlying pathomechanisms.