||The aim of this research is to find a better way to protect the marine environment from litter pollution under the perspective of International Law. It can be divided into five parts:
The first chapter explains the background, theme and related concepts.
The second chapter analyses the existing international legal regulations on this issue. It explores the boundaries and overlaps between different regulations, such as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), the London Dumping Convention, the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Actives (GPA),... After analyzing the pros and cons, this part tries to provide some practical suggestions.
The third chapter tries to provide a practical paradigm for marine litter pollution control of regional cooperation by realizing the present situation of regional cooperation. There are efforts in marine litter pollution governance between China, South Korea and Japan. In Europe, here highlights the OSPAR mechanism, by which fifteen Governments including Belgium, together with the European Union, cooperate to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. Also the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) should be taken into account.
The fourth chapter is about the Compliance Theory in dealing with this issue. Reports could be used as capacity-building mechanisms to resolve noncompliance problems. Moreover, the participation of international organizations, such as UNEP, is of great importance, they enhance capacity by translating environmental concern into policies.
The last chapter concerns on the countermeasures at the national level. A long-term sustainable financing is needed, different economic structures should be taken into account during the system design. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce quantities of waste requiring disposal. On a micro level, the idea of redesign could be added into it by Green-Chemistry Approaches.
In brief, Marine litter is a global problem, actions should be taken under a global framework, coordinated at the regional level and implemented at the national level. Preventing and substantially reducing marine litter and its impacts would be beneficial to marine sustainable development.