Referencing is the act of citing the source from which you quote and/or draw information, allowing your readers to locate the specific book, journal, internet document, etc.
Depending on the citation style mandated in the assignment or the publisher/journal's stylesheet for publication, references can be made directly in the text (discursive, using shortened citations, or in footnotes) and/or in the form of a bibliography or reference list at the end of a publication.
Providing proper attribution is always necessary when you quote a passage verbatim and/or refer to the ideas of others. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Moreover, accurate referencing enables the reader to verify the content and potentially gain further insights into the material to which you refer.
The dissemination of knowledge primarily occurs within a scientific network. When you write a bachelor paper or prepare a master thesis, you are also a participant in the scientific network. Therefore, you must indicate your position in the network relative to others who have written about the same topic. You do this by systematically referencing your information sources.
Plagiarism is an irregularity by copying or translating the work of others, in an identical or in a slightly modified form and without adequate source reference. Having a third party create a text is also considered plagiarism.
'...copying or translating the work...'
Work = text (passage), image, statistical data, chart, audio or visual material, diagram, etc.
'...identically or with minor modifications...'
Quoting = verbatim copying of a fragment enclosed in "double quotation marks".
Paraphrasing = adopting someone's ideas or propositions in slightly modified form, which means rephrased in one's own words.
Translating = adopting texts in another language, for example, from English to Dutch.
'...without adequate source reference.'
Citing, paraphrasing or translating without an adequate source reference = plagiarism!
Important: You are allowed to quote, paraphrase, and translate. It allows you to show that you have read and understood the relevant literature. This helps to support your own ideas and demonstrate how your work distinguishes itself from previous findings.
Research should be replicable, and scientific theories should be falsifiable. This principle also applies to your literature study. Your readers should be able to verify the sources you used, allowing them to consult them if desired and form a well-founded judgment about your perspective.
Here are some tips:
UHasselt can detect plagiarism in various ways, including the use of plagiarism detection software.
Plagiarism can be recognized through:
Plagiarism can also be detected electronically:
What is meant by citing, paraphrasing and summarizing, and which guidelines need to be taken into consideration?
Quoting means repeating a piece of text verbatim.
Please note that you may only quote verbatim under the following conditions:
Tip: During the writing process, clearly distinguish between the text you are quoting verbatim and your own commentary by using quotation marks for the verbatim passages.
When you rephrase the content of a (usually short) text passage in your own words, for example, a sentence or a paragraph, we call it paraphrasing.
When paraphrasing, you often use only the author's last name followed by the publication date. Whether you use this system of short references depends once again on the citation style or style guide you are using.
A summary is a shortened representation of a longer text portion (for example, a few paragraphs, pages, a chapter, or an entire book). A summary focuses on the main points and contains far fewer words than the original.
Please note that even when you paraphrase or summarize:
In the following two cases, including sources references is not required:
If you repeatedly use the same scientific publication as a source of information for a certain part of your paper, it is not enough to reference it only once at the beginning. On the other hand, it is also impractical to add a very similar citation after practically every sentence. In other words, finding the right balance in the number of references to this publication is crucial.
Example: For a chapter on the life of Empress Zenobia of Palmyra, you use a lot of information from the following article:
Kelly, S.E. (2004). Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. Notable Acquisitions at The Art Institute of Chicago, (30), 8-94.
The main purpose of references is to inform your reader about the sources of information you have used. The complete reference is included in a bibliography at the end of your paper (or, if required by the style guide you use, in footnotes); the abbreviated reference is included in the text itself (or in footnotes, if required by the style guide you use).
There are hundreds of systems for noting references, each with its own rules. In the following, we have deliberately chosen the APA (American Psychological Association) reference style of the has been deliberately chosen, as it is one of the most prominent styles.
However, it is important to know that each discipline has its own preferred style(s), and scientific journals often have their own style guide, with certain rules adapted. Therefore, be sure to inquire with your teacher or supervisor about the reference style you should use for a particular assignment.
The information included in a complete reference depends on the type of publication from which the information was retrieved.
Example: De Certeau, M., Giard, L., Mayol, P., & Tomasik, T. J. (1998). The practice of everyday life: Living and cooking (Vol. 2). University of Minnesota Press.
Chapter in a Book
Example: Mastenbroek, J. (2004). Plaatsbepaling. In J. Mastenbroek, M. van Persie, G. Rijnja & B. de Vries (Reds.), Public relations: De communicatie van organisaties (5e druk, pp. 3-13). Kluwer.
Example: Schilder, L., & Kwakman, K. (2005). Het versterken van de professionele identiteit door leren in gemeenschappelijkheid. Sociale Interventie, 14(3), 17-28.
Example: Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen. (2010). Bacheloropleidingen. HAN. Geraadpleegd op 1 juni 2010, http://www.han.nl/start/bachelor-opleidingen/
For missing information
A reference in the text itself (or in footnote for some other reference styles) is a reference in short form and is meant to lead your reader to the exact passage of the source of information you have used. In other words, you list the corresponding pages and not the start and end page of the article or the total number of pages of a book, like in your reference list.
In the APA style the surname(s) of the author(s) is combined with the year of publication.
Mortelmans, D., Spooren, P., & Chandesais, O. (2010). Naar de bron: informatie zoeken en gebruiken in de sociale en humane wetenschappen. Acco.
(Mortelmans, Spooren, & Chandesais, 2010)
Chapter in a book
Mastenbroek, J. (2004). Plaatsbepaling. In J. Mastenbroek, M. van Persie, G. Rijnja & B. de Vries (Reds.), Public relations: De communicatie van organisaties (5de druk, pp. 3-13). Kluwer.
Schilder, L., & Kwakman, K. (2005). Het versterken van de professionele identiteit door leren in gemeenschappelijkheid. Sociale Interventie, 14(3), 17-28.
(Schilder & Kwakman, 2005)
Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen. (2010). Bacheloropleidingen. HAN. Geraadpleegd op 1 juni 2010, http://www.han.nl/start/bachelor-opleidingen/
(Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen, 2010)
When referencing multiple publications by the same author with the same year of publication, indicate the year followed by a, b, c.